Meta-analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 2

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Gonzalo Mariscal

Orthopedic surgery resident physician

Founding partner of Omedics

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The impact of autologous iliac crest bone graft versus BMP-2 to improve fusion rates for posterolateral fusion (PLF) of the
lumbar spine remains unanswered. Single-institution-centered data dominate the literature, providing results that may be
contradictory or inconclusive. The aim of this paper is to analyze data pooled from multiple well-controlled studies that
examined both ICBG and BMP-2 for use in PLF. This meta-analysis also provides details of success in different subsets of
patients with variable risk factors for delayed and non-unions. Six high-quality randomized clinical trials were selected.
Efficacy, morbidity, quality of life, and safety were compared between the BMP-2 group and the ICBG group. A total of 908
patients were included in the study. At 24 months, 94% of patients achieved fusion in the BMP-2 group and 83% in the ICBG
group. At 6 and 12 months, the fusion was also greater in the BMP-2 group (86% vs. 60% and 88% vs. 80%, respectively).
Surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospitalization days also showed significant differences in favor of the experimental
group (p < 0.01). There were no differences between two groups in the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short
Form Health Survey and Back Pain Score, whereas a greater number of additional surgical procedures were performed in
the ICBG group (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the use of BMP-2 in PLF reduced the surgical morbidity and had more beneficial
effects on the fusion rate. The quality of life based on clinical scores was the same in both groups.

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